On January 8, 1297 the Grimaldi, an exiled Genoan family, seized the fortress.
They lost it in 1317, regained it in 1335, and soon begin to assert their independence.
Jean's will of 1454, that of his only son Catalan (1415-1457), and that of Catalan's only child Claudine (1451-1515), followed the same pattern as far as the succession was concerned.
Jean left Monaco to his son Catalan, with remainder to Catalan's male issue by order of primogeniture.
In case of default of Catalan's issue his sister Bartholomée was called to succeed (she was married to Pietro Fregosa, doge of Genoa; their male issue extinct 1548), and after her the nearest kin in the Grimaldi family.
These are the arms of the Grimaldi family: fusily argent and gules.
The supporters, two monks holding swords, recall how the disguise under which the first Grimaldi to rule over Monaco penetrated the fort in 1297.
Claudine's will of made her third-born son Lucien (d.
1523) her sole heir (disinheriting her second-born Louis for reason of insanity), with remainder to his brother Augustin (d.
The first appearance is in 1612, the year of his accession, in private notarial acts, where the formula dating the document as having been drafted while X was lord of Monaco was changed to "lord and prince".