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37 Since orthographic practice varies from one text to the other, the spelling of these examples may vary from the fully cited ones. Bibliography — References to previous studies are limited, in general, to discussions of the word’s form and meaning. References The following principles have been employed in providing references to texts: 1. Masoretic notes — according to manuscript source, book, chapter, and verse; e.g. Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palastina, 8 vols., Giitersloh 1933 AZ * Avoda Zara (Sources IV) B BA Bab Bacher, Term BB BB BDB Ben Hayyim Vol Ber Berg, Glos Bes BH Bible Bik BL Black, Hor BM BPOS BQ BR Brand, Ceramics B$ BT BY Tractate of the Babylonian Talmud (used before the name, e.g. Bergstrasser, Glossar des neuaramaischen Dialektes von Macula, Leipzig 1921 (AKM 15/4) Besa (Sources IV) Biblical Hebrew J, Mann, The Bible as Read and Preached in the Old Synagogue, 7, Cincinnati 1940 Bikkurim (Sources IV) British Library M. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus , 2 vols., Oxford 1879-1898 J. Margoliouth, Supplement to the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Incipit 5 nobv arrants 6 3DK 7 Nana nntt yra p 8 mrotp pan 19 The poems are cited according to the line numbering of the forthcoming edition to be published by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities where full details are given. dk 14 pnx’ non 45 m’o p 15 rn V’rns nsjm'K 46 nosn p N 16 m Vo in ’V ivk 47 nonos ’onri K 17 no’ p p*? Since the beginning of this century, the discovery of new 9 Jast. For words in CPA texts published after the appearance of LSp, I have been able to utilize a word list put at my disposal by Dr. 36 Additional examples have been cited by refernce only. Thus, all the versions of Echa Rabba are cited from manuscript sources according to the pagination of Buber’s edition. For unpublished sources, the references are as follows: a. Sokoloff (ed.), Arameans, Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Tradition, Ramat Gan 1983 Archive of the New Dictionary of Rabbinical Literature, Ramat Gan 1972 M. Ben Hayyim, Sefer Asatir, Tarbiz 14(1943): 104- 125; 174- 190; ib. Beyer, Die aramdischen Texte vom Toten Meer, Gottingen 1984 ABBREVIATIONS 9 Au S G. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament , Oxford 1907 Hebrew Language Studies presented to Prof. Ben Hayyim , Jerusalem 1983 (Heb) Berachot (Sources IV) G. Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Wiesbaden 1961 18 w/o w. WZKM Yalon, Intr Yalon, Studies Yalon Vol Yev YFG YK YN Yom ZA ZAW ZDMG ZDPV Zee Zep Zoar ( ) t ] 4 n’DIP p ntpo Vl N No. TN 11 K’DW m pin 42 nssv n Vrtt 12 KDVl D ’Vmk 43 ’ns nns K 13 1VT1S W’K 44 nosns V? Consequently, the absence of a reference to a particular word from a JPA text in the existing dictionaries does not necessarily mean that this word is not attested in the dialect. All of the previous modern dictionaries are based on the late (19th cent.) corrupt printed editions of the Rabbinic literature. 33 Comparative material from these two Aramaic dialects is given as far as is ascertainable. In order to present a large amount of documentation — especially in the more common entries — citation length has been kept to a minimum. When a single word in the citation is quoted from a different manuscript source, this is indicated by placing the siglum of the witness in parentheses following the word, e.g. K, means that the form is cited from a Geniza manuscript. For published texts, all references are given to the page and line numbering of the critical or best available edition, 40 even though the quoted manuscript did not serve as the source for the edition.

now Macuch, GSA 333-349, where a detailed bibliography is given. 38 In the interests of brevity, a representative or comprehensive reference has been preferred which may direct the reader further. PT printed on the basis of the Leiden Ms.; VR printed from a British Library manuscript), these citations may be registered only in the apparatus crlticus , or may not yet appear in any printed form. K12n, Jerusalem 1948 Id., Prolegomena ad litteras Amoraiticas, Jerusalem 1962 (Heb) c Eruvin (Sources IV) Ancient Midrash to the Book of Esther (Sources III) example Exodus explains Ezra ABBREVIATIONS FI H. Fleischer FPT Fragments of the Palestinian Targumim (Sources II) Fr, AF S. Hai Gaon, Berlin 1924 GAp Genesis Apocryphon Geig B. Sperber, Greek and Latin Legal Terms in Rabbinic Literature, Ramat Gan 1984 GM Z. Rabbinowitz, Ginze Midrash, Tel Aviv 1976 (Heb) GN geographical name Goldberg, Ohaloth A. Old Aramaic Orientalische Literaturzeitung l Orla (Sources IV) Ovadiah S. Poetry — A number of anonymous and undated poems have been preserved mainly in manuscripts from the Cairo Geniza and on papyri from Egypt. Papyri — A small number of fragmentary letters and documents from Egypt dating from approximately the 5th cent. The gradual appreciation of the need to treat each dialect separately 14 has highlighted the deficiencies in the state of Rabbinic lexicography, e.g.: 1. Today, concordances are regularly utilized by all scholars in the field but are only rarely credited. the triradical root of a verb or the absolute state of a noun. Part of Speech — The following parts of speech are distinguished: adj., adv., conj., interj., n., prep., pron., vb., v.n. Gloss — The English gloss is intended to convey a general meaning for the lexeme, whereas its more specific nuances are detailed in the lexical section. Etymology — The purpose of this section is to indicate the relationship of the lexeme to the cognates in the other Aramaic dialects or Semitic languages 32 in the following order: Other MWA dialects (CPA, SA), 33 Syriac, TBA, other Aramaic dialects, Mishnaic Hebrew, other Semitic languages. The most recent dictionary still remains that of M. 9 Since then much important lexical work has been carried out, 10 but it has been limited to discussions of newly discovered words, the elucidation of rare or misinterpreted ones, and the presentation of words belonging to specific semantic fields (e.g. Moreover, the lexicographical tradition dating back to the Middle Ages 13 combines in one work — and frequently in one entry — lexemes from various Hebrew and Aramaic dialects from both Palestine and Babylonia. 25 As a result, the articles in this dictionary are based on a complete — not a partial — lexical collection. 27 Aramaic loanwords in Hebrew contexts, however, are not part of the dictionary. 20 All the earlier dictionaries were written before the appearance of the concordances. 21 For a history of computerized concordance making, v. Lemma — This is the most basic form of the lexeme, e.g. Poems — according to the number and line in the forthcoming edition of Sokoloff-Yahalom, e.g. 35 For the sparsely attested words, morphological forms are given together with semantic illustrations. Wiesbaden 1965-1981 Akkadian Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes pn VK -pan ’m V *? Bacher, Die exegetische Terminologie der jiidischen Traditions- literatur, 2 vols., Leipzig 1899-1905 Hassan bar Bahlul, Lexicon syriacum, ed. Duval, 3 vols., Paris 1898-1901 Bava Batra (Sources IV) F. Brand, Ceramics in Talmudic Literature, Jerusalem 1953 (Heb) Inscription from Beit Shearim (Sources I) Babylonian Talmud E. CTY Dalm Dalm, Dialekt Dalm, Gr Dalm, Worte Dam Dan Dem denom. Dev R DISO DJD Dt Duensing E EA Eccl Ech R Ech RB Ech RG Ech RL Ed ed. EGedi El ENeshut Eps Eps, Gr Eps, MNM Eps, PLA Er Est An ex. Ez DICTIONARY OF JEWISH PALESTINIAN ARAMAIC construct M. Jacob, Das hebraische Sprachgut im christlich-palastinischen, ZA W 22( 1 902):83- 1 1 3 JANES Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society Jast M. Kaufman, The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, Chicago 1974 KBL L. Baumgartner, Lexicon in veteris testamenti libros 2 , Leiden 1958 Ket Ketubbot (Sources IV) Ket Pap Ketubba written on papyrus (Sources IX) ABBREVIATIONS 13 Kil Kilayim (Sources IV) Krauss, TA S. Levias, A Grammar of Galilean Aramaic, New York 1986 (Heb) lex lexical item Lieb S. Ratner (Sources IV) reading reference Inscriptions from the synagogue at Rehov (Sources I) Rosh Hashana (Sources IV) Rishon , citation in a medieval authority (Sources IV) , 16 DICTIONARY OF JEWISH PALESTINIAN ARAMAIC Ros E. Rosenthal RQ Revue de Qumran Ru Ruth Ru R Ruth Rabba (Sources III) SA Samaritan Aramaic Sam Samuel San Sanhedrin (Sources IV) Schirmann Vol S. Schulthess, Grammatik des christlich-palastinischen Aramaisch, Tubingen 1924 Schwally, Idioticon F. Sperber, Essays on Greek and Latin in the Mishna, Talmud and Midrashic Literature , Jerusalem 1982 Sperber, Money Id., Roman Palestine 200-400, Money and Prices , Ramat Gan 1974 Sperber, Nautica Id., Nautica Talmudica, Ramat Gan 1986 Spitaler, Gram A. Ben-Hayyim (ed.), Hp HO rd Tl [ Tibat Marqe ] A Collection of Samaritan Midrashim, Jerusalem 1988 (Heb) TMW J. Lieberman, Tosefeth Rishonim, 4 vols., Jerusalem 1936- 1939 TW J. verbal noun VR Vay^ikra Rabba (Sources III) Vullers I. Vullers, Lexico Persico-latinuht, 2 vols., Bonn 1855- 1864 w. K 27 mo K ivss ino K 58 nan nan K 28 nnmx ino K 59 ponan K m’Vs K 29 ma^K 'b iivxk 60 p SSI P*? mm 62 KW3K 'b mo K 32 isboat K n nos 63 (fragmentary) 33 pn tr Vwi 64 nox’ nnao 34 p D’*? n ’^iri K 66 Kmoi mos 36 mm rnsn K 67 Kwmp mm j Vdk 37 mns pwasn K 68 ’o^y mapn 38 ’’as 1 ? Each text is cited according to a principal manuscript witness. When a complete citation is taken from a witness other than the principal manuscript witness, it is indicated as such, e.g. MMDam Gen 3: 17 = Masora Magna of the Damascus Pentateuch to Gen 3: 17 ; b. BBer ) Biblical Aramaic; Beitrdge zur Assyriologie; Isho bar Ali, Syriac Glosses , 2 vols., ed. Gottheil, Kiel 1874-1908 Babylonian version (Sources IV) W. Black, A Christian Palestinian Syriac Horologion, Cambridge 1954 Bava Mesia (Sources IV) Bulletin of the Palestine Oriental Society Bava Qamma (Sources IV) Bereshit Rabba (Sources III) Y. (Sources III) Chronicles conjugation, conjunction corrected A. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy, Oxford 1909 Christian Palestinian Aramaic 10 cs. (Sources III) LA Liber Annuus Lam Lamentations Lane E. Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon , 8 vols., London 1863- 1893 Lat. Krauss, Griechische und lateinische Lehnworter im Talmud, Midrasch und Targum, II, Berlin 1899 Lesh Leshonenu Lev Leviticus Levias, Gram C. Prov Ps Ps J PSm PSm Sup PT QA Qid 15 Paris ms.; Parma ms. mnsrn min HT’Jin p (Morphology of Galilean Aramaic according to the Fragments of the Palestinian Targum), M. thesis, Tel Aviv University 1978 Pesahim (Sources IV) perfect personal name preposition previous Pesikta de Rav Kahana (Sources IV) Proclamations of a Palestinian Court (Sources V) pronoun Proverbs Psalms Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on the Pentateuch, ed. Payne Smith , Oxford 1927 Palestinian Talmud Qundres Aharon (Sources IV) Qiddushin (Sources IV) Ram Rat rdg. Rehov RH Ri$ Maimonides’ Laws of the Yerushalmi (Sources IV) B. Schirmann Jubilee Volume , Jerusalem 1970 (Heb) Schulthess, Gr F. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy , II, Oxford 1909: Glossary of the Aramaic Texts, XLVIII-LXXII Sof A. Sokoloff Sok, GF Id., The Geniza Fragments of Bereshit Rabba , Jerusalem 1983 (Heb) Sok, Job Id., The Targum to Job from Qumran Cave XI, Ramat Gan 1974 Song Song of Songs Sophocles E. Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, Cambridge 1914 Sot Sota (Sources IV) Sperber, Greek D. Die Lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentlischen Hebrdisch, Berlin 1966 Wartzki, LM I. o m-i K 48 psmtm son 18 ps Vo mwv iwasrw 49 nsw ’an K 19 armns *pn 50 kot Kn*? ox 21 nssm Vpk mk 52 nam Vsn 26 ’nimass man K 57 pssi iy? Since morphologically identical words in even closely related dialects can frequently differ in both meaning and nuance, their consolidation in one dictionary entry — even if marked — is often misleading. The compilers of earlier Rabbinic dictionaries sought to achieve lexical — not dialectal — completeness. A study of the PN’s in the Rabbinic literature remains a desideratum. 3 1 Since a verb may only be attested in a derived conjugation or a noun only in the emphatic state, these forms may on occasion be reconstructed.

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